Nine years after the first flight of the prototype of the “Cougars”, in 1974, the management of “Aerospatiale” decided on a deep modernization of the helicopter. It is fully consistent with the situation prevailing in the world by the mid-1970s: there was a shift of generations medium transport helicopters. In the new S-70 and S-76, radically upgraded bell 412. The British proposed WG.30 – further development of “lynx”. In the Soviet Union there is the Mi-17 is a product of the evolution of the Mi-8. The path of modernization was cheaper. Super Puma quite fit into the global trend under the motto “new wine in old wineskins”. On the contrary, completely re-designed S-70 proved to be far from the top of the helicopter. He was never able to make a worthy competition nor our Mi-8 and Mi-17 or “Super Puma” Americans “were not included in the size.”
If the old Puma was designed primarily as a military helicopter, while developing its successor, the emphasis on civilian applications. The French are correctly calculated the market situation. Potential military clientele has remained the same, but to add new customers. In civil aviation there was a shortage of helicopters class “Cougars”, they especially needed to service offshore oil platforms. Here the French were only two competitors – American S-61 and Soviet Mi-8. The helicopter company “Sikorsky”, created for the military themselves were expensive and not cheap, they cost operation and therefore found rather limited application in this area. Procurement of Soviet technology was hampered by political motives, and the absence of the Mi-8 West of certificate of airworthiness. In his time in the civil version managed to sell 130 “Cougars”, and “Super Pumas” were expecting even more success.
It was decided to put a more powerful engine. Consider equipping the American helicopter GTE General electric KZT700, but they power not far superior to Turbo” IVC. After the talks, representatives of the firms “Aerospatiale” and “Turbomeca” took a rather unusual decision: to develop the helicopter and engine in parallel. Certain margin in the constructors ‘Turbomeca” existed. The most promising acknowledged the GTE project “Makila”. The first engine in the metal was ready in June 1975, but the first run on the stand in Bordeaux took place only on January 21, 1977, To may 18, successfully completed the 50-hour test, opening the way for the creation of “Super Pumas”.
The engines, “Makila” put on SA.330-02 – second experienced “Cougar”. After rework machine received the designation SA.330R, and then AS.331-01; change abbreviations derived from the change of the name of the manufacturer with “Sud airlines “Aerospatiale”. First flight in a new guise helicopter flew on 4 June 1977 is Unlikely AS.331-01 can be considered the prototype of the “Super Cougar”, as no changes to the design of the airframe, not on the replacement engines have not been made. And project Super Puma was significantly different from its predecessor. Design seriously reconsidered from the point of view of ensuring the survival of the crew and passengers in case of emergency landing or even decline. The kinetic energy of impact were intended to extinguish the chassis and the bottom of the fuselage.
The calculation results and test “shots” layout with different heights and different speeds reinforced floor in the cockpit and cargo cabin, strut main landing gear (which introduced additional dampers), set the keel under the tail boom, which not only counteracts the impact energy, but also improved yaw stability). The chassis was redesigned for ease of maneuvering in limited sizes platforms oil platforms. Changes have affected the front leg – she became unicycle; the radius of vehicles was less.
We investigated the possibility of equipping the “Super Cougar” tail rotor-fenestron, the type of helicopter Gazelle. Fenestron mounted on SA.330-05, small third car in the series, renamed in SA.330Z. The first flight took place in September 1975, But flight tests revealed no significant advantages, so the screw in the annular channel refused.
With rotor was clear – a four-bladed propeller with blades made of composites; these screws have been already identified in SA.330J and SA.330L. The fuselage has got some “swiftness” by installing a sharper nose cone, designed to hide the radar antenna. To improve the controllability in pitch at low speeds of flight introduced controlled stabilizer, which was mounted on the left side of the tail rotor pylon. To reduce aerodynamic drag the “bowl” of the rotor was closed with a fairing. As the helicopter was intended primarily for civilian applications, from large sliding doors on the sides of the cargo compartment refused, replacing them with smaller doors.
But when designing a “Super Pumas” military requirements is not ignored. The military version has provided the Kevlar armor for the crew. Have taken measures to further strengthen the passive protection ability of the helicopter to withstand combat damage, extended range on-Board equipment, it was possible to reduce the IR signature of the machine.
The large reserve capacity of the engines, “Makila” has enabled the designers to develop two basic versions of the helicopter – “short” and “long”. Option short fuselage could be of interest to customers who were tall and climate (high temperatures, the engine power drops) characteristics of the machine, “long” – for those who may need to move more people and cargo, and the height does not matter. The “short” model was designed in a military version – AS.332B and civilian – AS.332C. Cabins of both versions had identical dimensions, the volume of the cargo compartment were 11.4 m3, as in SA.330. The “long” model (military AS.332M and civil AS.332L) had lengthened to 76 cm in the fuselage, thereby the volume of the cargo compartment has increased to 13.3 m3. The “short” model in a military version was designed to carry 20 soldiers, civilian – 17 passengers, “long” could carry on four more.
In addition to the four basic modifications of the design was conducted fifth version – ship AS.332F (F – Fregat, the helicopter for landing on frigates). On deck the car provided for the possibility of folding tail boom and main rotor blades, and in the on-Board equipment included a forced landing on the ship. This helicopter could carry anti-ship missile AM.39 “Iksose”. The first full sample of the “Super Cougar” has become AS.332 n 001 – upgraded unfinished helicopter SA.330 n 1541 (539-I serial “Puma”).
The first flight of the machine was completed on September 13, 1978 The end of the year the helicopter flew 27 hours, after which it was replaced the shaft and bearings of the rotor and installed the intakes of the engines of a new design. After this test was resumed. In one of the flight the helicopter has a top speed of 300 km/h (4 km/h higher than the old “Cougars”). The flights continued until July 17, 1980, when the machine has completed the “emergency landing”, which actually was a controlled fall. The appearance of the helicopter was restored, he even exhibited at the Paris air show, but the sky is no longer rising.
The second Super Puma was served already as a serial and even got a serial number 2001. All serial numbers “Cougars” began with the numbers “1″ and “super pumas” with “2″. Actually, the first, second and third “serial” helicopters were intended for flight tests. They were all “short”, the helicopter ╧ 2003 was built in a military version. In July 1980 under the car ╧ 2001 and sent to Egypt, where tested in hot climates. The certification according to the standard FAA civil helicopter AS.332C received 14 October 1981
First “long” “Super Puma” has become the fourth “serial” helicopter assembled in the configuration AS.332L. The first flight he performed on 10 October 1980, This machine was tested in Arctic conditions in Canada, in Nova Scotia. In January 1981, this “Super Puma” was shown at the conference of the International helicopter Association, held in Anaheim.
In the story of “Cougars” a separate section can be devoted to the change of the names of the helicopter. It was this “super pumas”. Since 1990, all military versions of the helicopter are referred to as “Cougar” and not designated Eurocopter AS 332, a AS.532. In 1992, again changed the name of the manufacturer. The German firm VAM has teamed up with France’s Aerospatiale”, forming a consortium of Eurocopter, which, in turn, became part of the European concern EADS. Modification, developed after the formation of the “Eurocopter”, already designated as, and EU (EC 225 and EC 725).
“Long” and “short,” military and civilian vehicles were manufactured in parallel. The military option “short” models, AS.332B, designed to carry 21 paratrooper. The airborne equipment depends on the requirements of the customer, in particular the helicopter can be equipped with a thermal imaging system for the front hemisphere, meteorological or search radars, inflatable ballonets, winch compatible Socko night vision instrumentation cabins, increased capacity fuel tanks in large sized sponsons main landing gear. Modification Eurocopter AS 332C is a civilian equivalent of the military AS.332B and is designed to carry 15 to 17 passengers. Fundamental differences between military and civilian option no. As in the case of “Puma”: civilian vehicles used for military purposes.
Including their have and the armed forces of France. Two helicopters are used to transport members of the Royal family of Oman.
Since 1990, re-built Eurocopter AS 332B are referred to AS.532UC/AC (Cougar 1). Type UC – unarmed transport and assault. AS.532AC different machine guns in the doorways of the cargo compartment and pylons for external suspension blocks NAR, containers with 20-mm cannons or machine guns. On most helicopters of this modification installed engines “Makila” 1A capacity HP 1780, on the other – “Makila” 1A1 in 1837 S. L.
Military helicopters “short” type were supplied to the armed forces of France, Abu Dhabi, Argentina, Brazil (in the air force of this country, they are denoted by SN-34, Navy – UH-14), Chile, Ecuador, Nigeria, Oman and Spain. Machine AS.532UC purchased Austria.
Modification AS.332C1 was designed specifically for the contract with Greece for the supply of four search and rescue helicopters, which was signed on 20 August 1998, These machines are equipped with engines of Makila” 1A1. In the forward fuselage mounted search radar Bendix 1500V and thermal imaging FLIR sensors Tomcoh-CSF “Clio”. The equipment includes a projector, a winch with a lifting capacity of 272 kg, medical equipment and dropped life rafts. Autonomous navigation system and the autopilot mode stabilization in hover mode. The first two helicopters were delivered to Greece in December 1999, another two in March next year.
AS.332S1. The helicopter is under the fuselage nose Radome radar of the circular review Bendix 1500V, turret, thermal imaging survey system front hemisphere AselFLIR-200 and inflatable ballonets; instrumentation cabin combined with night vision goggles. Six cars designed to operate in combat conditions, have suspended container with 20-mm cannon.
All helicopters except the two first met in Turkey EUROTAI, a joint venture between Eurocopter and local firms TAI. Last ordered “kogarov” the Turkish air force received in March 2002.
Eurocopter AS 332F created as a helicopter deck home, too, was built in series. It is designed for use against submarines and surface targets. In the forward fuselage mounted radar of the circular review OMERA ORB-32 or Thomson-CSF “Agrion”. On every Board possible suspension of one rocket AM.39 “Exocet” or one anti-submarine torpedo. The equipment included dropped sonar buoys and towed magnetic anomaly detector, forced landing system on the deck of the ship. The tail rotor pylon can be folded.
The first buyer AS.332F steel Abu Dhabi; two helicopters were delivered in 1982 To 1990, the name changed to AS.532SC Cougar 1. Helicopters AS.332F (AS.532SC) acquired Kuwait, Chile and Saudi Arabia. But as the ship they are only used by the Chilean Navy.
For civil aviation was built helicopters, two long-term options. Eurocopter AS 332L had the salon at 21 place, AS.332L-1 – 24. In 1997, Thailand has set two helicopters in the VIP performance called AS.332L-2. As before, a passenger car, he also gained the armed forces of different countries: France, Cameroon, China, Congo, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Nepal, Oman, Thailand and the UAE.
On the basis of modification L created purely military AS.332M. In this variant modified the prototype AS.332L. The machine can carry up to 25 Marines with full equipment or six wounded on stretchers and 10 more sedentary. In 1990 the name was changed to AS.532UL. Much success on the market the helicopter had not, although in small quantities these cars entered service in France, Brazil, Chile, Jordan, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey, which has made the largest order AS -10.532UL for the army and 20 AS.532AL for the air force (the supply contract signed in 1997).
Type AL was specially developed for the demands of Turkey to the search and rescue helicopter. These machines on the composition of equipment is close to Greek search and rescue helicopters
Though Eurocopter AS 332M was offered in the US for the competition as a competitor helicopter S-70 (UH-60), chances to win. Even if not to take into account purely political reasons, the U.S. army needed a helicopter smaller dimension.
The main scope of civil “super pumas” were flying over the sea. The first commercial operator of this helicopter became the American company “petroleum helicopters”, bought in 1980, three helicopters AS.332C and three AS.332L. Her example was followed by the company North Scottish helicopters” who has placed an order for six “long” “super pumas”, intended for the replacement of five helicopters S-61 n helicopter that served offshore oil fields in the region of the Shetland Islands. First car, painted in red color, this British company has received 3 March 1983 To June, the helicopter began to fly on a drilling platform, Diwi omega.
On the last day of 1980, December 31, ‘s leading helicopter airline England, “Bristow helicopters”, ordered 35 AS.332L. It was a record contract for the civil sector of the global helicopter market. The first of the ordered vehicles the company has received 11 March 1982 In Bristow helicopters” the new helicopters were called “Super Tiger”. Operation “super tigers” began on April 15, 1982, the end of the month the car flew 150 hours, showing the 95 percent level of readiness to fly.
Over the North sea, flew “super pumas” and the Norwegian company “Helicopter service”, purchased in the first half of the 1980s AS ten.332L. Danish company, Maersk air” in the spring of 1983, also purchased two AS.332L. In North America, European helicopters wide distribution could not get a priori. The first six “super pumas” has brought back the aforementioned “petroleum helicopters”. One of these helicopters has leased for a term of two years by a canadian company “of Silent helicopters”. Adequately assessing the car, the Canadians concluded at the end of 1983, the contract for delivery of six AS.332L. To replace the crews of fishing vessels used two leased “super Puma” company “Shirley Eyre”. The two people in the helicopter “in 1982, used AS one.332C for wood in Colorado. This fly accounted for in the mountains, at altitudes up to 3300 m.
A technical description.
Eurocopter AS 332 – helicopter single-rotor design, with a tail rotor, two HPT and tricycle landing gear.
The fuselage is all-metal, semimonocoque which had safely damaged structures. The glazing panel is provided with anti-icing system. The crew cabin has two side discharged door. The cargo cabin volume 1.4m3 has a maximum size 6.05 x 1.8 x 1.55 m and one sliding door dimensions 1.35 x 1.35 m on each side, the floor space of the cabin 7.8m2. In the back of the cab has a hatch trapezoidal shape with dimensions of 0.98 m at the base and 0.7 m at the top. In the embodiment with elongated by 0.76 m fuselage cargo compartment has a length of 6.8 m, a floor space 9.18m2, volume 13.3m3. In the cockpit are from 21 to 25 paratroopers or 16 wounded (12 on stretchers and 4 seats) with an accompanying nurse or up to 24 passengers in the normal version and 8-15 passengers in the variant with improved comfort.
The tail boom has a profiled cross-section and passes into the profiled beam end in the form of a keel, which is equipped with a stabilizer and the tail rotor; the bottom of the tail boom has a large ventral keel. Stabilizer trapezoidal shape in the plan is increasing the area 1.34m2 and the inverted airfoil of the greater curvature. The stabilizer is fixed at the angle of zaklinania 3╟.
Chassis retractable, tricycle type, with a nose support. The main support with a levered suspension have one wheel size 640 x 280mm and a pressure of 0.88 MPa, equipped with oil-pneumatic shock absorbers, noise back into the side fairings. Nasal support with dual wheels dimensions 466 x mm and pressure 0.68 MPa, with a levered suspension. The chassis is designed to strike with a vertical speed of 3M/s 3M wheel Track wheelbase 4.49 m (for option with an elongated fuselage – 5.25 m).
Rotor with hinged blades and brake. The vertical hinge of each blade is provided with an elastomeric bearing, the damping of the oscillations of the blade. The blades are rectangular in plan, with swept tapered tip is made of composite material with fiberglass spar and a covering made of CFRP, the chord of the blade 0.6 meters Can be installed anti-icing system by replacement of the sock lining stainless steel titanium plate thickness 0.8 mm with terminographical element. Above the bushing is mounted fairing that reduces drag.
The tail rotor with a diameter of 3.05 m, five-blade has a blade made of composite materials with improved airfoil NACA 23010 filter and NACA 23012 in the butt.
Powerplant. The motors are near at the top of the fuselage front rotor, have separate intakes with dust-proof devices and closed by the fairings. The front of the intakes are made in the form of consoles, has a Central body, cellular structure and a covering of fiberglass. For removal or installation of engines console front air intakes are moved forward along the guide rails. For ease of maintenance fairings engines have two folded panel on hinges. The engines have a modular design. Engine weight “Makila” 1A equipment kg.
Fuel system. Options Eurocopter AS 332B, B1 and C have five fuel tanks with a total capacity l. Options AS.332L, LM and M have a system of six fuel tanks with a total capacity l. Accommodate four additional fuel tanks inside the fuselage with a total capacity of l and two outboard tanks with a total capacity l. Military versions of the helicopter self-sealing tanks.
Transmission. Main gear box having a modular design, five-speed with two tensiometry and two separate circuits lubricant placed between the engines. From the first stage (from both engines to intermediate reducer) is provided with drive two fans. The speed of rotation of the shafts GTE 23840 rpm, rotor shaft 265 rpm, shaft steering screw 1278 rpm.
The hydraulic control system, dubbed, dual hydraulic boost system, which are attached respectively to the crankcases of main and tail gearboxes.
The armament. In a military variant for the army and air force, the helicopter can be armed with two guns caliber 20 mm, or two machine guns, caliber 7.62 mm, or 38 NAR 68mm caliber in two containers. The naval version of the helicopter can carry two anti-ship missile AM 39 “Exocet”, or two lightweight anti-submarine torpedoes and dipping sonar station or a magnetic detector for detecting submarines and dropped sonar buoys.
Electronic equipment includes a new autopilot SFIM 155. Search and rescue helicopter set radar Bendix RDR 1400. In anti-submarine variant in the nose of the fuselage is mounted radar OMERA ORB.32 ASD3600. It is possible to install a retractable radar early warning.
the first production version. transport desantnii helicopter with the possibility of installing small arms, gun and missile armament. Designed to carry 21 paratrooper;
advanced military transport helicopter with more powerful GTE Makila, cockpit floor reinforced for perceptual load 1500kg/m2, the number of paratroopers increased to 23;
AS.332C civil modification, designed to carry 19 passengers;
marine modification, is available in a search and rescue helicopter with radar Bendix RDR-1400, RCA Primus 40/50 or Honeywell (RCA) Primus 500, anti-submarine variant with radar Thomson-CSF Varan, a magnetic anomaly detector Alcatel/Thomson-Sintra HS 312 and torpedoes Mk.46, and in anti-ship variant with radar Omera-Segid Hеraclеs ORB 3214 or Thomson-CSF Agrion 15 and AM with ASM.39 Exocet and AS.15TT.
modification SA.332F with GTE Makila IA1 and 2 ASM AM.39 Exocet.
AS.332F-2 advanced marine shipboard helicopter
modification SA.S with a shortened cabin, mainly for civilian use.
advanced civil helicopter AS.332L with GTE Makila IA1, is designed to carry 24 passengers; produced in variants with improved cockpit layout for 8 and 12 passengers;
AS.332L-2 transport helicopter for maintenance of drilling rigs.
military transport helicopter with an elongation of 0.76 m cabin, designed to carry 25 Marines. Increased fuel capacity. Modification AS.332M served as the basis for the creation of an improved multipurpose helicopter AS.532 “Cougar”
AS.332M-1 variant SA.332M with GTE Makila IA1.
Eurocopter-designation of search and rescue version of SA.332F-1.
Eurocopter-marking anti-submarine and anti-ship version of SA.332F-1.
AS.532AC Coguar armed version AS.532UC.
AS.532UС Coguar Eurocopter-designation SA.332B-1.
AS.532AB Coguar 100 armed version AS.532UB.
AS.532UB Coguar 100 simplified version AS.532AC/UC.
AS.532AL Coguar armed version AS.532UL.
AS.532UL Coguar Eurocopter-designation SA.332M-1.
The diameter of the main rotor, m 16.50
The tail rotor diameter, 3.05 m
Height ,m 4.92
normal takeoff 9000
maximum takeoff 9350
Internal fuel, l 1497 + optional 1900
PTB, l 2 x 325
Engine type GTE 2 Turbomeca Makila IA1
Power, kW 2 x 1400
Maximum speed, km/h 278
Cruising speed, km/h 262
Range, km 618
The flight duration, h 3.20 min
The rate of climb, m/min 420
Practical ceiling, m 6000
Static ceiling, m 4100
A crew of 2-3 people
Useful load: 21 soldier or 6 stretchers and 7 sedentary wounded or 4,000 kg of cargo in the cabin or 4500 kg per suspension
one 20-mm cannon GIAT M621 or two 7.62-mm machine gun
in transport version: PU 2 Matra 155, Thomson-Brandt 68-22 or Thomson-Brandt 68-36 c 18, 32 or 36 68 mm NUR, or 2 containers with 30-mm DEFA cannon or 12.7-mm or 7.62-mm machine gun
in anti-submarine version: 2 torpedoes Mk.46
in anti-ship: ASM 2 AM.39 Exocet or 6 AS.15TT or 1 ASM AM.39 Exocet and 3 AS.15TT.