Eurocopter EC 135 is a multipurpose light helicopter.
Development of the helicopter was conducted from late 1980-ies consortium Eurocopter. 15 October 1988 made the first flight of the technological prototype No. D-HBOX, fitted with a pair of engines Rolls-Royce 250-C20R. on 15 and 16 February 1994, made its first flight pre-production helicopters No. D-HECX and # D-HECY with engines Turbomeca Arrius 2B and Pratt & Whitney Canada PW206B respectively.
Serial production began in 1996 To 2008, delivered more than 650 helicopters. Helicopters are the most widely used, in particular their use in the Polish ambulance service Lotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe.
Built using composite materials. Available in several versions.
Extremely good helicopter IS strengthened the position of the consortium “Eurocopter” world helicopter market.
Designed to carry eight people, helicopter Eurocopter Airbus EC 135 (weight 2.8 t) developed on the basis of helicopter demonstrator IN 108, performed its first flight on 15 October 1988. The car was intended to replace a good, but outdated light helicopter IN 105.
IN 108 was designed by specialists of the helicopter branch of the company “Messerschmitt-B6lkow-Blohm” (VAM). It is equipped with two gas turbine engines Allison (now Rolls-Royce) Model 250-C20R-3 with a capacity of 450 HP Novelty was mounted on the helicopter four-bladed hingeless main rotor with blades new profile, made of composites.
Other innovations include a new transmission with two-stage gearbox and antiresonant system (ARIS), which significantly reduced the vibration level, the widespread use of composites and advanced avionics. The developers managed through the use of modern technology to significantly improve the flying characteristics of the machine, while reducing its cost.
The second prototype first took to the air on 5 June 1991. It was fitted with engines Turbomeca TM 319 Arrius 1 take-off power for 479 HP 16 January 1992 helicopter branch of the French company “Aerospatiale” and the company VAM joined the consortium “Eurocopter”. It allowed to share the French and German experience in the field of helicopter industry and accelerate the flight test program. In the design of the helicopter has made a number of changes and the number of passengers increased to eight. Thus was born the helicopter IS.
The layout of the traditional helicopter single-rotor machines schematic – long fuselage tail boom, but the support system is quite unusual – a four-bladed hingeless main rotor in combination with the tail rotor-fenestron. The use of this carrier system in combination with the aerodynamic perfection of the fuselage has drastically reduced the noise created by the helicopter. The fuselage is made mostly of cellular structures based on the Kevlar. The cockpit was equipped with two automotive-style doors that open forward. Instrumentation is completed by the customer’s requirements; it can be made on the basis of conventional devices with arrows, and on the basis of multifunction displays Avionique Nou-velle. To access the passenger cabin has a sliding door. Goods, medical devices or stretchers with patients are loaded into the cockpit through a hatch in the rear fuselage. Both the gas turbine engine Arrius 2B2 is the capacity of 606 HP (alternative powerplants – two PW206B2 turbine engine with a capacity of 621 HP) equipped with a digital control system FADEC. The cruising speed of a helicopter – 256 km/h.
Maximum takeoff weight payload on an external sling – 2900 kg, range with standard fuel and 650 km
The first pre-production machine (D-HECX and D-HECY) first took to the air on February 15 and 16 April 1994. The helicopter with the registration code D-HECX were the engines Arrius 2B2 is on the D-HECY – Pratt & Whitney Canada PW206B. Third the co-series helicopter (D-HECZ) started flying 28 November 1994.
Certificate JAR for day 27 flight helicopter Eurocopter Airbus EC 135 received 16 June 1996. Certification FAR 27 “a” category for twin-engine machines was obtained on July 31. On the same day the company “Deutsche Rettungsflugwacht” received the first two production machines.
The company “Eurocopter” by mid-2008, has received orders to build more than 500 helicopters AS. In addition to corporate and VIP options, the helicopter is built for police and medical services. Sanitary version is equipped with a rescue winch and can carry two patients on stretchers and two medical doctors.
The commercial success of the helicopter prompted the leadership of the group to develop a military modification intended for use as messenger, patrol, rescue and rapid reaction forces. In the military option was converted first pre-production helicopter. It was first demonstrated on April 28, 1998 at the air show Aerospace Africa.
German police operates ESS engines Тиrbоmеса” and “Pratt& Whitney Canada”. Helicopters of the German police and border guards are equipped with loudspeakers, floodlights, lines, data transmission, TV and thermal observation systems, video equipment, laser warning system obstacles Hellas.
Helicopter IS demanded in the market for the air ambulance to a considerable extent by the presence of the hatch door in the rear fuselage to facilitate loading of stretcher patients.
The first contract for the supply of military modifications AS in South Africa fell through, however, in October 1999, nine of the helicopters ordered army aviation Portugal. In March 2003, the Jordanian air force confirmed its intention to buy up to 16 machines. Another order for 16 instances was obtained from the Swiss air force, these machines are intended to replace the outdated Alouette III helicopters. On ES the following tools were tested aircraft losses: 12.7 mm machine gun FN Herstal HMP-400, 20mm cannon Giat NC621,12-charge-blocks of unguided rockets caliber 70 mm. On the military option is possible to install light armor, knives for cutting wires of power lines, dust filters on the intakes of the engines, infrared systems review and night vision goggles.
Among the first military helicopters AS received Royal air force Jordan, where they are used as a light transport and training.
Description of the design.
Helicopter Eurocopter Airbus EC 135 is the development of helicopters Bo.105 and Bo.108 and matches them in size. Has a wide application – up to 45% panels from km composite construction (Kevlar, carbon fiber); the design of the floor panels of the lower part of the fuselage, tail boom and cargo compartment used aluminum alloys in the engine compartment – titanium alloys. The helicopter boasts improved aerodynamic contours. Compared to helicopter In.105 harmful resistance of the fuselage has decreased by 30 %, although the fuselage lengthened only by 0.05 m, and the width of the inner part of the cabin is increased by 0.01 m.
The helicopter modular design has dimensions of 4.1 x 1.26 x 1.49 m and a volume of approximately 5 m3. The cabin layout may vary depending on the composition of the crew and destination of the helicopter: emergency medical care, the option of “luxury”, the police service, maintenance of offshore platforms, transport operations, including for cargo transportation on an external sling. When designing the cockpit much attention is paid to ergonomics issues. With the aim of improving the dashboard pilot reduced, the maximum field of view is 280╟. The pilot and six passengers accommodated in the seats, having a high strength in case of emergency landings. Door access crew cabin recline on hinges. The passenger compartment is used for sliding doors. When transporting bulky cargo rear hinged door can be removed.
The stabilizer of a rectangular shape in plan, scope 2.35 m, the endplates made of km, installed at the end of the tail boom. End washers have a trapezoidal shape in plan. Swept vertical tail has an asymmetrical profile and is provided below the safety support. In case of emergency reduction vertical tail creates a lateral force that ensures the balancing of the reactive torque.
Chassis – neobisiidae ski. Attenuation due to the elastic deformation of the transverse supports, which are rejected back to 1╟. Track chassis 2.1 m. the Supports are interconnected on both sides of the fuselage longitudinal beams that serve as footrests. Bottom fairing fenestron a safety tail base.
The rotor of the new generation, no-hinge design, with variable speed. Blade changing along the length of the profile DM H3 and DM H4 have a non-linear twist and ending of trapezoidal shape, designed for the transonic ow velocity. Management system engines have double redundancy. All dynamic loaded units have a service life 3000h or operated by the state.
The control system is conventional, hydraulic, booster, with electro-hydraulic stability enhancement system. Assume that you use the option with single cabin, equipped for instrument flight with a more efficient system for improving sustainability.
Hydraulic system and electrical system are made with double redundancy. All electrical and electronic equipment is protected from the action of the electromagnetic field strength of 200 V/m.
Flight and navigation equipment provides the ability to instrument flight. Is provided the use of meteorological radars.
Crew: 1-2 pilot
Passenger capacity: up to 6 passengers
Length: 12,16 m
Fuselage length: 10.2 m
Main rotor diameter: 10.2 m
The diameter of fenestron: 1.0 m
Maximum fuselage width: 1,56 m (without tail)
Height: 3,51 m (with tail rotor)
The area of the swept rotor: 81,71 m2
Wheel track: 2.0 m
Empty weight: 1 490 kg
Maximum takeoff weight: 2 835 kg
suspended load: 2 900 kg
Mass suspensions: 1 360 kg
The mass of fuel in internal tanks: 560 kg
Powerplant: 2 × turboshaft Turbomeca Arrius 2B2 (options EC 135 T1/T2/T2+) or
Power engines: 2 × 606 HP (2 × 452 kW (takeoff))
Powerplant: 2 × turboshaft Pratt & Whitney Canada PW206B2 (options EC 135 P1/P2/P2+)
Engine power: 2 × 621 HP (2 × 463 kW (takeoff))
The size of the cargo compartment
Length: 3.06 m
Width: 1.5 m
Height: 1.26 m
Floor area: 4,3 m2
Useful volume: 4,8 m3
Maximum speed: 259 km/h
Maximum speed: 256 km/h
with Turbomeca engines: 239 km/h
with Pratt & Whitney engines: 230 km/h
with Turbomeca engines: 620 km
with Pratt & Whitney engines: 646 km
Its ferry range: (with increased to 720 kg fuel)
with Turbomeca engines: 798 km
with Pratt & Whitney engines: 833 km
with Turbomeca engines: 3 hours 24 min.
with Pratt & Whitney engines: 3 hours 47 min.
Service ceiling: 3 050 m
using the effect of the earth: 3 050 m
without the use of ground effect: 2 195 m
Rate of climb: 7.6 m/s
Disk load: to 34.7 / 35.5 kg/m2 (without / with suspension)
Thrust: 216,9 / 212,3 watts/kg (W / suspension transmission at maximum takeoff weight)